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四级考试作文写作常识
2015-06-10 10:59 xjy 

一、 基本的写作步骤
许多考生在拿到作文题后,就雷厉风行地动手写了起来,结果不是写的一塌糊涂就是改得乱七八糟。在四级考试(包括其它水平考试)的写作中,通常进行以下五个步骤:审题、选材、腹稿(包括提纲和正文)、书写、修改。
1. 审题
审题是写作的第一步,也是最关键的一步。因为如果跑题了的话,就几乎不得分了。所以在拿到题后,一定要冷静地弄清题目要求;然后确定文章的文体以及主题思想。
通常在四、六级的作文中,有两种形式。一种是给出题目和提纲(中文或英文),另一种是给出题目和每一段的段首句(段首句大多是该段的主题句,其实相当于提纲)。我们应该充分利用这些信息,才不至于跑题。 以2001年1月份的试题为例,它的题目是"How to Succeed in a Job Interview?",给出了两个要点(提纲):
(1)面试在求职过程中的作用
(2)取得面试因素:仪表,举止谈吐,能力,专业知识,自信,实事求是......
从这些信息来看,这篇文章应该是一篇议论加说明的文章,要求写的是如何在找工作时顺利(成功)通过面试。两个提纲告诉我们,文章至少要分两个部分,第一个部分是议论,说明面试是重要的;第二个部分要从第二点中给出的几个方面挑几点说明怎样去做。
但是这两个部分在文章中的比重应该如何?是否要平均?
此时应该看到,标题中的关键词是HOW,因此文章的重点应该在第二点,而第一点只是作为引言。
那么文章要分为几段呢?
在英语文章中,每一段只讨论一个问题。所以第(1)点显然要独立成段,第(2)点因为是文章的重点所在,可以是一个长一点的段或分为几段。但要注意的是,既然第一段是一个引言,那么文章就应该还有一个总结的段落,这是原提纲中没给出来的。
2.选材
确定了文章的主题和轮廓之后,我们就开始考虑要选择哪些要点来阐明主题。选材一定要围绕主题句进行,同时要考虑到全面性。
比如在考虑上面第一点时,我们要想到面试对双方都是重要的。对于interviewer来说,通过面试他能对applicant有更好的了解,能通过面试挑到合适的人选等;而对于interviewee来说,他能通过面试更好地了解所申请的工作、薪水、待遇等信息,还能更好地展示自己,还能增强自己的社会知识,能练习与人打交道等。
但这些是否都要写进文章中去呢?或者比重是否都应该一样呢?
当然不。就面试的作用来说,因为标题是站在求职者的角度来说的,因此面试对于求职者的作用就显得比它对招聘者的作用更为重要。而在后者中增强自己的社会知识、练习与人打交道等方面,并不是面试最重要的方面,就可以舍去。 就第二点来说,提纲中给出了许多方面,但这些方面也不能一一都写进作文中去,否则就不是一篇考试作文,而要写一本求职大全了。应该挑最重要的和最好写的去说,别的可以一带而过甚至不提。
3. 打腹稿
打腹稿是不可省略的一步,但却为许多人所忽视。其实打腹稿就相当于我们平时写作时打草稿,只是考试时没有时间,也没有纸用来打草稿。 建议平时写作时,要养成良好的习惯,即使在打草稿时也要仔细想一想要怎么写,在脑子中先将文章"读"一篇。
打腹稿时,首先要考虑文章的开头和结尾,然后是各个段落间的衔接和过渡,然后是各个句子怎样写,要注意用自己熟悉的、有把握的句子,同时也要注意句子之间的衔接与连贯。 4. 抄写
严格地说,第四步仅仅是将前面三步的结果用笔写到试卷上。这部分不应占用太多的时间,真正需要时间的是前面的三步。
5. 修改
修改的主要任务是检查一下有无拼写和语法方面的错误,同时注意是否用词有过多的重复。
总之,在写作时切忌一边想一边写。
二、文章的衔接与连贯
在评分标准中,同是否扣题同样重要的是文章的连贯性。往往有的文章扣题倒也扣题了,但还是得不了几分,这其中的原因恐怕与连贯性有很大的关系。 这里所说的连贯有两两层含义。一是指文章在内容上是连贯、统一的,文章中所有的句子都是为全文的中心服务的。就各段而言,其中的每一句话都要紧紧围绕着该段的主题句进行,不能说与主题句无关的东西。有人也将其称为统一性。请看一例:
The weather has been changeable. On Sunday we had a high wind that blew down some trees. Monday was so cold that we had to turn on the heat and wear out winter coats. On Tuesday we formed a group to go roller skating. By Wednesday the weather cleared and the sun came out. Thursday was as hot and humid as an August day. Friday morning it began to rain, and it looks as if we''ll have a cold, steady wind for a few days.
这一段写"最近天气多变",首句为主题句。扩展句叙述了星期日、星期一、星期三、星期四和星期五的天气情况,用以展开关键词changeable。但星期二没有提天气,而是说当天的活动安排,偏离了主题,打断了段落叙述的连贯性,破坏了段落逻辑意义的统一性,应删去或改为与天气有关的话。
再如:
Sports benefit us in many respects. When taking part in sports, we get the chance to train almost all parts of our body. There is no doubt that properly balanced physical activities keep us physically fit. Furthermore, sports can enrich our life and maintain our psychological health. Through participation, everyone can learn that on the playing field he not only competes for himself but also for his team. Sports teach us about consideration, cooperation and optimism, and how to cope with difficulties.
第一句是本段的主题句,接下来作者从体育运动对身体的好处说了两句,第四句讲述体育运动对心理方面的益处,第五句从团队的方面加以论述,最后一句既是论据,同时也是对前面三点的概括。全段没有一句话脱离主题句。
连贯的第二层含义指的是表达上的连贯。文章的段落之间、段落中各句子之间要有一定的衔接。
段落结构和句与句之间的衔接应遵照一定的顺序。段落之间的连接也应符合逻辑。这样使文章连贯紧凑,自然流畅,层次分明,脉络清晰。段落只有在具有含义一致性的同时又具有表达的连贯性才能充分有效地传达信息,真正实现写作目的。
这两层意义的连贯性是相辅相成的。内容的连贯性是表达连贯性的前提,一组互不相干的句子放在一起,无法取得表达的连贯性;一致性有赖于连贯性,只有把一组意义紧密相关的句子有机地组合起来,才能真正充分有效地阐述其主题思想。 就上面的例一来说,虽然它是以时间为线索将这几天串在一起,但仍让人感觉太乱。每个句子都是以星期某一天的名子开头,太单调了。各个句子之间似乎没有什么关系,应该说是一篇连贯性较差的文章。下面让我们对它稍加修改一下:
The weather has been changeable. On Sunday we had a high wind that blew down some trees. Monday was so cold that we had to turn on the heat and wear out winter coats. And it remained gloomy the next day. To our pleasure, by Wednesday the weather cleared and the sun came out. But Thursday tuned out to be as hot and humid as an August day. Worse still, it began to rain this morning, and it looks as if we''ll have a cold, steady wind for a few days.
那么,如何使文章连贯呢?
就议论文而言,获取连贯主要有三种方法:一是内容上的连贯,二是使用代词或有意地重复一些词,三是使用关联词语。
内容上的连贯如前所述。
代词和有意的重复可起到衔接的作用。例如在上面的例子中,在提到星期二时,没有用Tuesday,而是用了the next day,避免重复,并把这两天连在一起,让人感觉到了前后的承接。再如最后一句中原文用的是Friday morning,改为this morning后,意义并没有改变,但一下子把距离拉近了,既承接起前面的五天,又能与后一分句中的将来时有效的结合。
关联词和插入语的使用是四级考试作文中最明显的连接手段,如上例中的and,to our pleasure,but,worse still。
需要注意的是,关联词的使用是与段落(文章)的展开方法密切相关的,不要为了使用关联词而使用关联词。下面结合段落的展开方法具体加以说明。
1. 列举法
列举的模式通常是
主题句----example 1
----example 2
----example 3
列举时常用for example, for instance, such as, like, as proof, thus, take...as an example, to illustrate 等词语.
Nonverbal communication, or "body language." is communication by facial expressions, head or eye movements, hand signals, and body postures. It can be just as important to understanding as words are. Misunderstandings often amusing but sometimes serious-can arise between people from different culture if they misinterpret nonverbal signals. Take for example, the differences in meaning of gesture very common in the United States: a circle made with the thumb and index finger. To an American, it means that everything is ok. To a Japanese, it means that you are talking about money. In France," it means that something is worthless, and in Greece, it is an obscene gesture. Therefore, an American could unknowingly offend a Greek by using that particular hand signal.
2. 分类法
一般是在主题句之后,依次罗列段落指示词所表达的几个部分或几个方面。然后,选用丰富的事例对所罗列的各个部分或各个方面进行具体地说明或解释。
There are three basic kinds of materials that can" be found in any good library. First, there are books on all subjects, both in English and in many other languages. These books are organized according to subject, title, and author in a central file caned the card catalog. Books can generally be checked out of the library and taken home for a period of two to four weeks. Second, there are reference works. which include encyclopedias, dictionaries, bibliography, atlases, etc., and which generally must be used in the library itself. Third, there are periodicals- magazines, newspapers, pamphlets-which are flied alphabetically in racks, or which have been filmed to conserve space. Like reference works, periodicals cannot usually be removed from the library.
分类时常用:most of all, next,moreover, in addition,besides,furthermore,to begin with,to start with,first of all,first,second,third...
3. 因果关系
在段落一开头,就用主题句点明其因果关系,然后选用有关材料,客观的罗列某些原因或结果,以证阐述的中心思想。
Growing numbers of well-to-do Americans are making the decision to move abroad. They find it impossible in America to walk the streets at night without fear of being raped, mugged, or murdered, nor do they see a way to escape the poisonous air of the cities. They maintain that even American food has become increasingly dangerous to eat. Last but not least, they insist that they are sick of the pace of American life, a pace that leaves no time for relaxation or pleasure.
因果关系常用语汇: because of, so, owing to, thanks to, thus, as a result of, hence, for this reason, consequently, is caused by, lead to, result in
4.比较法
主题句必须明确表明所要比较的对象和所要比较的范围,实际上就是罗列两个或两个以上比较对象的相同点。
Learning English is like building a house. Laying a solid foundation is the first and most important step. In other words, you should reads, you should read and speak English every day. Memorizing new words and phrases is also helpful. Like building a house, learning English takes some time. So don''t be impatient. Remember, Rome wasn''t built in a day.
常用语汇:at the same time, similar to, accordingly, both, show a degree of similarity, similarly, lie and so , the same as, and... too, in the same way, in a like manner
5.举例法
列举事实或举出实例来说明中心思想, 是简单易行、具有说服力的写作方法。
Communicating with other people by telephone is very convenient, especially when you have something urgent. For example, if one of your family members is seriously ill at right, and you don''t know how to deal with it and where to find a doctor, what can you do? A telephone is the answer. Dial 120 and you will get services from the hospital very soon.

 

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